Speckle-based determination of the polarisation state of single and multiple laser beams
Morgan Facchin, Graham D. Bruce, and Kishan Dholakia
Laser speckle is generated by the multiple interference of light through a disordered medium. Here we study the premise that the speckle pattern retains information about the polarisation state of the incident field. We analytically verify that a linear relation exists between the Stokes vector of the light and the resulting speckle pattern. As a result, the polarisation state of a beam can be measured from the speckle pattern using a transmission matrix approach. We perform a quantitative analysis of the accuracy of the transmission matrix method to measure randomly time-varying polarisation states. In experiment, we find that the Stokes parameters of light from a diode laser can be retrieved with an uncertainty of 0.05 using speckle images of 150×150 pixels and 17 training states. We show both analytically and in experiment that this approach may be extended to the case of more than one laser field, demonstrating the measurement of the Stokes parameters of two laser beams simultaneously from a single speckle pattern and achieving the same uncertainty of 0.05.